L’or et le Pétrole au Sénégal : se réjouir ou s’inquiéter des découvertes ?

Le Sénégal aurait découvert son premier site de gisement de gaz naturel en 1996. Vingt ans après, la question de la production, du développement et de l’exploitation des gisements se pose avec acquittée dans les médias, dans les débats politiques et autres publications scientifiques interposées.

À côté de l’exploitation et de la production de l’or et du zircon dans la partie Est du pays, l’annonce de découvertes importantes de gisements de pétrole et de gaz alimente les débats et contribue à grisailler davantage la lanterne des sénégalais sur ce dossier.

Dans ce flot d’informations où l’Etat est pointé du doigt sur un dossier plus aussi important que sensible, le citoyen s’installe dans un flou total et n’arrive presque plus à se situer. Doit-il se contenter des affirmations et déclarations des spécialistes de la société civile et experts sur la question ? Doit-il se fier à une gouvernance “transparente, sobre et vertueuse” qui ne veut pas se prononcer sur un dossier qu’il juge “technique” ? Quand les citoyens critiquent les dispositions contractuelles dans ce secteur sur la base de ce qui a été publié par des lanceurs d’alertes, que devient le jeu de transparence qu’exige une démocratie?

Autant de questions qui méritent d’être posées. Qu’est ce qui a été fait par l’Etat du Sénégal et qui ne respecterait pas la Loi N° 98-05 du 08 janvier 1998 portant code pétrolier au Sénégal.

Un travail rigoureux d’information et de veille citoyenne s’impose sur ce sujet. Dès lors, que l’exploitation de l’or de Sabadola a fait couler beaucoup d’encre, faire que le Sénégal sort bénéficiaire des différents contrats seraient la première mesure pour apaiser toutes le climat.

Où trouve t-on du pétrole et du gaz au Sénégal ? Quelle est la cartographie des gisements ? Quelle politique d’accompagnement pour les populations des sites riverains ?

Phase d’exploitation, l’intérêt du Sénégal ? Quel a été le mécanisme d’exploitation, quel modèle économique ? Pourquoi autant de bruits autour du dossier sur le Pétrole ?

Déjà un sondage exige du Président Macky Sall et du Gouvernement du Sénégal la prise en compte de 7 points clés :

1) Le recouvrement des parts du pétrole et du gaz sénégalais illégalement et frauduleusement octroyés à Petro-Tim Ltd, Frank Timis, Timis Corporation et al, dans les blocs de Kayar Offhsore Profond et Saint Louis Offshore Profond.

2) Le recouvrement des parts du pétrole et du gaz sénégalais, illégalement et frauduleusement octroyées à Ovidiu Tender, Tender Oil and Gaz, et DAT Consultancy FZE.

3) L’annulation de l’octroi illégal et litigieux, le 3 Mai 2017 dernier, des blocs de Rufisque Offshore Profond à la multinationale TOTAL.

4) La résiliation effective et immédiate des contrats de partage de production (CPP) conclus avec African Petroleum de Frank Timis pour les blocs de Rufisque Offshore Profond et Sénégal Offshore Sud Profond, pour défaut de respect de l’engagement contractuel.

5) La publication effective et immédiate de tous les contrats et avenants pétroliers et miniers signés, paraphés, et avalisés par le Président Macky Sall et son Gouvernement, depuis 2012 jusqu’à présent.

6) La publication effective et immédiate de tous les rapports d’enquêtes de l’Inspection General d’Etat (IGE), et de l’Office Nationale Contre la Fraude et la Corruption (OFNAC) relatifs au pétrole et aux mines.

7) L’imposition immédiate d’un moratoire de deux ans sur l’octroi ou la signature de tout nouveau contrat, avenant, ou extension visant tout contrat pétrolier et minier, jusqu’à l’élection présidentielle prochaine de 2019.

Il ne faudrait pas que cette découverte renforce les inégalités sociales au point de susciter le syndrome de la malédiction des ressources minières. Plusieurs fois, des ONG et des médias ont démontrés que l’exploitation de l’or ne bénéficiait pas au Sénégal sans compter les dégâts et autres écologiques.

La gestion de plus 450 milliards de mètre cube pour un seul gisement, la plus grande ressource pétrolière en Afrique de l’ouest mérite une politique saine et assainie pour propulser une nouvelle dynamique de développement. Cette politique passe d’abord par la transparence, la circulation de l’information mais aussi une réelle politique de gestion optimale des ressources. Un important travail en partenariat avec les médias locaux sera publié sur ce sujet dans les jours à venir.

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